Article 15 of the Framework Cooperation Agreement creates a permanent institution called the Nile Basin Commission. It will be a supranational unit, with a broader authority and mandate to approve and approve national investment plans and programmes for investments in water resources that sovereign Member States intend to implement along the Nile. It will therefore serve as a forum for cooperation and a clearing house for all measures envisaged for all Member States. It will also promote and facilitate the implementation of the Framework Cooperation Agreement and facilitate cooperation between Nile Basin States in the conservation, management and development of the Nile Basin and its waters. This agreement will only bind the countries that have signed and ratified it. This has created disagreement among states upstream and downstream of the Nile over what should be included in the 2010 Watershed Cooperation Framework Agreement, as Egypt and Sudan have suspended their participation in the Nile Basin Initiative for the past five years. On the issue of Ethiopia`s announcement in 2011 of plans to build the Great Renaissance Dam or other River Nile countries a dam despite objections from Egypt or other countries, the Lake Lanoux Schieds (France v. Spain, 1957) can shed more light on the crisis and help resolve it. In this case, it was recognized that a state has the right to unilaterally use the part of a river that crosses its territory as long as the exploitation does not affect any other state. Both the 1929 and 1959 agreements caused discontent in other Nile states and demands to amend the pact rejected by Egypt.
The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) is a partnership between countries bordering the Nile that “want to “develop the river cooperatively, share essential socio-economic benefits and promote peace and security in the region.”  The NBI began with a dialogue between the neighbouring countries, which led to a common goal of “achieving sustainable socio-economic development through equitable use and exploitation of the common water resources of the Nile Basin.”   It was officially launched in February 1999 by water ministers from nine countries sharing the river: Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Eritrea as observers. From the beginning, the World Bank and other external partners have supported the Nile Basin initiative. The World Bank has a mandate to support the work of the NBI as a development partner and administrator of the Nile Basin Trust Multi-Donor Fund.  One of the partners is the Nile Basin Discourse, which describes itself as “a network of civil society organizations that are trying to gain a positive influence on the development of projects and programs under the Nile Basin initiative.”  The initiative, founded in 1999, brought together the nine countries of the Nile basin at the time to develop the river in a cooperative manner, share essential socio-economic benefits and promote peace and security in the region.